Training Programmes

Training Programmes
Incorporating the ERF Entrepreneurship and Sense of initiative competence in the curricula for VET and Adult learners

Type: MMC Workshop
Category: VET and Adult trainers

This very intense course provides the trainers all necessary information to run the course: Entrepreneurship and Sense of initiative (ERF Key competence 7) either as a stand alone course or even to incorporate some of the modules in their existing curricula.

The course targets experienced trainers or beginners.

Duration: 6 days
Language: English
Attendance: 7-25
Speaker: Christiana Knais


Existing courses on Entrepreneurship tend to focus on strategic business planning and on the development of a new business strategy.

The focus of the current module is distinct from the traditional courses on Entrepreneurship, in that it is based on the conceptualization of the Key Competence “Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship” as defined by the European Reference Framework (ERF).  

Based on the ERF, the Key Competence “Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship” is defined in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes as follows:

“Entrepreneurship has an active and a passive component: it comprises both the propensity to induce changes oneself and the ability to welcome, support and adapt to innovation brought about by external factors. Entrepreneurship involves taking responsibility for one’s actions, positive or negative, developing a strategic vision, setting objectives and meeting them, and being motivated to succeed.”

The current module looks into six major chapters that cover the components of this Key Competence.
• ‘Entrepreneurship Concept & Basic Principles’
• ‘Personal SWOT Analysis, Goal Setting and Motivation for Success’,
• ‘Project Management’,
• ‘Team Building’
• ‘Business Ethics’ and
• ‘Innovation and Change’

Therefore, this module does not only target entrepreneurs (that is people setting up their own business). It is a module that targets every European that desires to have quality of personal life as well as a prosperous career.

Through this unique approach to entrepreneurship, the course provides a solid background on the major modules and also hands on experience with the use of innovative, experiential training tools.  Specific modules of the course could also be incorporated in other training curricula.


Who Should Attend

Beginners as well as experienced adult trainers as well as VET trainers will benefit from this training programme.


The purpose of this training programme is to provide the participants the knowledge, skills and competences needed to train learners in the area of entrepreneurship as this is defined by the European Reference Framework.


Taking into account the definition of knowledge, skills and competences within the EQF, the experts defined competence as "a demonstrated ability to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes for achieving observable results". Consequently, the related descriptions will embed and integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Learning Objectives regarding Knowledge
In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual. The learning objectives of the program for the acquisition of Knowledge, set of know-what– I learn the way that something is made – are:


  • Knowledge of available opportunities in order to identify those suited to one’s own personal, professional and/or business activities.

Learning Objectives regarding Skills
In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments).
The learning objectives of the program for the acquisition of Skills – I am able to do something – are


  • Skills for planning, organizing, analyzing, communicating, doing, de-briefing, evaluating and recording.
  • Skills for project development and implementation.
  • Ability to work co-operatively and flexibly as part of a team.
  • Ability to identify one’s personal strengths and weaknesses.
  • Ability to act proactively and respond positively to changes.
  • Ability to identify the major aspects of Business Ethics
  • Ability to assess and take risks as and when warranted

Learning Objectives regarding attitudes
The learning objectives of the program at the level of attitudes, cognitive and relational capacity– I am able to respond effectively in professional, personal and social situations – are:

  • Disposition to show initiative.
  • Positive attitude to change and innovation.
  • Willingness to identify areas where one can demonstrate the full range of enterprise skills — for example at home, at work and in the community.




Good knowledge of the English language (at a C1 level)


The training course adopts a 'workshop methodology' where the trainer provides the main theoretical background through lecture and other approaches are adopted to facilitate the learning such as discussion, group exercises, video case studies and analysis, experiential exercises etc.

The main objective of the selected methodology is to achieve the required results while at the same time to make learning an enjoyable experience. What is more, ERF deals with the competencies each European should have. It does not only focus on professionals. Therefore, it is important to look into the competence from the aspect both of the personal and the professional life.

The training course begins with an icebreaker session. Then each chapter starts with the basic theoretical framework that is provided through lecture. However, other training tools are incorporated in the training session. More than one icebreakers have been provided and the trainer may also use icebreakers (energizers) during the training course.

Video case studies are a key factor of success of this training course. Some of the videos used as also motivational (in addition to educational). Questionnaires and assessment tools are also used to enable the participants to identify their own knowledge, skills and attitudes in the area of entrepreneurship. Other training tools include:
• interpret the pictures
• case studies
• experiential exercises
• etc


The training stages adopted follow the structure of the competence as this is introduced in the first chapter. Therefore each of the chapters deal with a specific dimension of the competence.




Α.1 Introduction to entrepreneurship

A.1.1 Introduction to the class

  • Trainers introduction
  • ice-breaking  [ the trainer can select from a list of ice breaking activities presented in Annex 3]

A.1.2 Introduction to the course

  •  “Educational contract” - the rules of the class

A.1.3 Introduction to entrepreneurship

  •  The concept of entrepreneurship
    •  Team exercise: Define entrepreneurship
    •  Present the results to the group
  •  The term of entrepreneurship (as used in business)
  •  The competence of entrepreneurship as specified by the ERF

A.2. The term of entrepreneurship as used in business 

A.2.1 The 10 Rules of Successful Entrepreneurship” (Reid Hoffman)

A.2.2 The intelligent entrepreneur ( by Bill Murphy)

A.3. The term of entrepreneurship as used in ERF 

A.3.1 Four different dimensions of ERF

  •  Presentation to the group of the knowledge, skills and attitudes as presented in ERF
  •  Group work for the definition of the dimensions (The structure of entrepreneurship)
  •  Relationships between dimensions (Group work and presentation to the class)





 B.1 The triangle of success- Attitude- Behaviour and Techniques 

B.1.1 Presentation of the triangle

  •  Attitudes
  •  Behaviour
  •  Techniques

B.2. Personal SWOT analysis

B.2.1 The concept of SWOT analysis

  •  SWOT analysis on a personal level
    •  personal strengths and weaknesses and how they affect personal and professional success
    •  identification of opportunities  for personal, professional and business activities
    •  identification of threats affecting personal, professional and business activities
  •  SWOT analysis on a personal level and entrepreneurship
    •  Group Discussion
    •  Experiential exercise: SWOT Analysis

B.3. Goal setting

B.3.1 SMART goals

  •  Examples of goals
  •  Advantages from setting goals
  •  Exercise: goal setting

B.3.2 Personal goal setting (Stephen Covey)

  •  Techniques for personal goal setting
  •  Goals in six areas of life
    •  Family and Home
    •  Financial and Career
    •  Spiritual and Ethical
    •  Physical and Health
    •  Social and Cultural
    •  Mental and Educational

B.3.3 Professional goal setting

  •  Long term and short term goals
  •  Examples

B.4. Motivation for success


B.4.1 Self motivation

  •  Definition of self motivation
    •  Self Motivation in Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  •  Importance of self motivation
  •  Self motivation techniques
    •  Have a cause
    •  Have a dream
    •  Be hungry
    •  Have your own race
    •  Take one more step
    •  Let go of the past
  •  Watch the video: Stay hungry, stay foolish by Steve Jobs [video explained and analyzed in training tools]
  •  Watch the video: FISH [video explained and analyzed in training tools]
  •  Watch the video: Ken Kamler: Medical Miracle on everest [video explained and analyzed in training tools]
  •  Self motivation and entrepreneurship
    •  Discussion


B.4.2 Motivation of others

 Motivation theories

    •  Herzberg's two-factor theory

B.4.3 Motivation and entrepreneurship

  •  Porter and Lawler (1968)




C.1 Basic principles of project management   

C.1.1 The concept of a project

  •  Definition of projects
  •  Characteristics of projects
    •  Exercise: Project or not
  •  Project Life Cycle
  •  Project stakeholders

C.1.2 The concept of project management

  •  Definition of project management
  •  Basic principles of project management
  •  The procedure of project management- PDCA

C.2. Project Planning

C.2.1 Requirement analysis

  •  Development of the project scope statement

C.2.2 Create WBS

  •  Breakdown of the project into work packages

C.2.3 Other planning activities

  •  Activity definition and sequencing
  •  Resource estimation
  •  Duration estimation
  •  Scheduling
  •  Cost estimating
  •  Budgeting
  •  Quality planning
  •  Designing the allocation f Human Resources
  •  Communications planning
  •  Risk analysis
  •  Plan purchases and acquisitions
  •  Ten golden rules of project risk management

C.2.4 Project Management Plan

  •  what it is and what it is not
  •  Introduction to the sections of the project management plan

C.3. Project Implementation 

C.3.1 Direct and manage project execution

  •  Acquire project team
  •  Develop project team
  •  Information distribution

C.4. Project Monitoring and Control 

C.4.1 Monitoring and control

  •  The importance of Milestones
  •  Procedures for monitoring and control
    •  Integrated change control
    •  Confirmation of field
    •  Quality control

C.4.2 Monitoring tools

  •  Progress reports
  •  Progress review meetings
  •  Adhoc meetings
  •  14 points for controlling product quality


C.5 Exercises 

C.5.1 Case study analysis: Save the Troodos House

C.5.2 Experiential exercise: Business start up



D.1 Definition and characteristics of a team

D.1.1 Team and team working

  •  Definition of a team
    •  Sayings related to teams and team work and analysis
  •  Introductory exercise on team building: Let’s build bridges
  •  Characteristics of a team

D.1.2 The stages of team development

  •  Characteristics of different stages

D1.3 Characters and roles in a team

  •  Different kind of characters in a team
  •  Different roles in a team and the importance of each

D.1.4 Tips for successful team building

  •  Clear expectations
  •  Commitment
  •  Competence
  •  Control
  •  Collaboration
  •  Communication
  •  Consequences

D.1.5 Ability to work cooperatively

  •  Effectiveness
  •  Appropriateness
  •  Responsiveness

D.1.6 Watch the video; The Kingdom was lost [video explained and analyzed in training tools]

  •  Key messages

D.2. Effective communication in teams 

D.2.1 Communication in general

  •  Internal and External communication
  •  The dimensions of a message
    •  Words
    •  Body language
    •  Tone of Voice

D.2.2 Verbal communication

  •  The magic of words
  •  The tone and other characteristics of voice

D.2.3 Non verbal communication

  •  Innate or acquired non verbal signals
  •  Understanding body language
    •  Gestures and expressions that support communication
      •  the handshake
      •  Head gestures
      •  Eyes
      •  Mouth
      •  Posture
      •  Distances and positions
  •  Group Exercise: Understand body language [exercise explained and analyzed in training tools]

D.2.4 Active Listening

  •  Understanding active listening
  •  Active listening techniques
  •  Exercise: Guess the picture [exercise explained and analyzed in training tools]
  •  Advantages of active listening
  •  Role play: Active listening

D.3 Conflict and conflict resolution

D.3.1 Conflict Styles

  •  Avoidance
  •  Accommodation
  •  Competition
  •  Compromise
  •  Collaboration

D.3.2 Techniques for conflict resolution

  •  Exercise: Thomas Kilmann questionnaire [exercise explained and analyzed in training tools]
  •  Conflict resolution exercise: Andrew and John

D.3.3 Being a team player: Experiential exercise on team building





E.1 Business ethics 

  • Definition
  •  Importance

E.1.1 Corporate Social Responsibility

  • Original definition from European Commission
  • Revised definition
  • The different aspects

E.2 Environmental ethics 

  •  Green entrepreneurship
  •  Pollution
  •  Debatable areas

E.3 Sustainable Growth 

  •  Sustainable development
  •  Definitions

E.4 Fair trade 

  • Ethical trade movement
  •  Workers rights
  •  Behaviour of buying companies

E.5 Human rights 

  • Definition
  •  Dimensions
  •  The law

E.6 Fair Business Practice

  •   Legal obligations
  •  Transparency
  •  Fair competition

E.7 Health and Safety at workplace

  •  Definition
  •  Objectives

E.8 Lessons from the case study of Toyota

  • Growth
  •  Risk management
  •  Suppliers
  •  Responsibility
  •  Long term view

E.9 Exercises 

E.9.1 Case study: Ethical or not ethical (Michael Thomas)

E.9.2 Case study: Ethical or not ethical (Annie Hudson)




F.1 Creativity and Innovation 

F.1.1 Definitions and importance

  •  Define creativity and innovation
  •  Importance
  •  Experiential exercise: Creativity (matches)

F.1.2 Approaches to innovation

  •  the six more common approaches to innovation
  •  Connecting innovation to profit
  •  Experiential exercise: Balls

F.1.3 Styles of innovation

  •  visioning
  •  modifying
  •  exploring
  •  experimenting
  •  Experiential exercise: Numbers

F1.4 Opportunities for innovation

  •  Techniques for identification of opportunities for innovation

F.2 Change management 

F.2.1 Characteristics of change

  •  Characteristics of change
    •  Change in personal life
    •  Change in professional life

F.2.2 Change management (John Kotter)

  •  Eight steps to successful change  
  • Change management issues

F.2.3 Responsibility for managing change

  •  Involve people
  •  Leadership and management style
  •  Other techniques (workshops etc)

F.2.4 Positive attitude to innovation and change

  •  Exercise: Test your innovation IQ [exercise explained and analyzed in training tools]

F.3 Risk taking   

F.3.1 Risk in life

  •  The 5 most important risks you have to take in life.
  •  Discussion

F.4 Module completion and evaluation 




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